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Table 3 Selection gradient analysis on the paired dataset of trait plasticity and relative fitness on traits which displayed significant treatment responses for; A) Aciphylla glacialis, B) Oreomyrrhis eriopoda and C) Wahlenbergia ceracea

From: Phenotypic plasticity and water availability: responses of alpine herb species along an elevation gradient

Species Trait β P value N
A) A. glacialis
 Root Mass Ratio 0.01 0.940 23
 Leaf Size −0.08 0.532 21
 Stomatal Conductance −0.25 0.031 22
 % N 0.92 0.477 11
B) O. eriopoda
 Leaf Mass Ratio −0.05 0.420 53
 Leaf Size 0.18 0.157 51
 % N −0.18 0.016 16
 Total Leaf Count 0.12 0.036 63
 Water Use Efficiency 0.11 0.247 30
C) W. ceracea
 Photosynthesis 0.11 0.063 34
 Root Mass Ratio 0.00 0.996 51
  High Elev 0.12 0.234 29
  Low Elev −0.06 0.592 22
 Stomatal Conductance 0.03 0.650 28
  High Elev 0.03 0.527 16
  Low Elev 0.03 0.838 12
 Total Leaf Count −0.06 0.126 58
  High Elev −0.09 0.023 29
  Low Elev −0.03 0.639 29
 δ 13c −0.13 0.654 16
  High Elev −0.18 0.966 8
  Low Elev −0.20 0.443 8
  1. Selection differentials were calculated combining data from plants of different elevations. In cases where elevation effects were significant (Figs. 1 and 2), additional analyses were performed for data from plants of the different elevations separately. Positive selection differentials indicate adaptive responses, while negative values indicate maladaptive responses. Significant responses are indicated by bolded p-value. n = number of pairs within each analysis