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Table 4 Selection gradient analysis on trait value and relative fitness of functional traits which displayed significant treatment responses for; A) Aciphylla glacialis, B) Oreomyrrhis eriopoda and C) Wahlenbergia ceracea

From: Phenotypic plasticity and water availability: responses of alpine herb species along an elevation gradient

Species β P value N
A) A. glacialis
 Root Mass Ratio −0.20 0.074 23
 Leaf Size 0.51 <0.001 20
 Stomatal Conductance 0.20 0.090 22
 % N 0.01 0.940 11
B) O. eriopoda
 Leaf Mass Ratio 0.02 0.707 63
 Leaf Size 0.08 0.207 48
 % N −0.23 0.025 16
 Total Leaf Count −0.06 0.248 63
 Water Use Efficiency 0.11 0.245 30
C) W. ceracea
 Photosynthesis −0.01 0.000 34
 Root Mass Ratio −0.05 0.813 53
  High Elev −0.03 0.455 29
  Low Elev −0.05 0.473 24
 Stomatal Conductance −0.04 0.544 29
  High Elev −0.02 0.756 16
  Low Elev −0.05 0.627 13
 Total Leaf Count 0.14 0.001 57
  High Elev 0.19 <0.001 29
  Low Elev 0.09 0.228 28
 δ 13c 0.22 0.007 17
  High Elev −0.18 0.232 9
  Low Elev 0.21 0.067 8
  1. Selection differentials were calculated combining data from plants of different elevations. In cases where elevation effect were significant (Figs. 1 and 2), additional analyses were performed for data from plants of the different elevations separately. Positive selection differentials indicate selection for larger values, while negative values indicate selection for smaller values of the trait. Significant responses are indicated by bolded p-value. n = number of pairs within each analysis