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Fig. 3 | Climate Change Responses

Fig. 3

From: Drivers of amphibian declines: effects of ultraviolet radiation and interactions with other environmental factors

Fig. 3

The black solid line shows the ground-level UV solar irradiance (W m−2) at 11:30 on 11 January 2009 in Brisbane, Australia (a latitude of 27.5°S), on a cloud-free day. The dotted black line shows the action spectrum for DNA damage as determined by Setlow [18] and parameterised by Bernhard et al. [202] (normalised to 1 at 300 nm). The dashed black line shows the action spectrum for erythema (sunburn in Caucasian human skin) as proposed by McKinlay and Diffey [19] (normalised to 1 at 298 nm). By weighting the solar irradiance with these action spectra, the effective solar irradiance (W m−2) can be determined and is shown by the dotted and dashed grey lines for DNA damage and erythema, respectively

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