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Table 1 Examples of the effects of UVR on amphibians

From: Drivers of amphibian declines: effects of ultraviolet radiation and interactions with other environmental factors

UVR effect Species Light Source References
Survival
Reduced embryonic survival (hatching success) Ambystoma gracile Ambient sunlight [178]
Anaxyrus boreas Ambient sunlight [100]
Limnodynastes peronii Artificial lamps [147]
Lithobates sylvaticus Artificial lamps [93]
Litoria aurea Ambient sunlight [177]
Pseudacris cadaverina Ambient sunlight [179]
Rana aurora Ambient sunlight plus artificial lamps [96]
Rana cascadae Ambient sunlight [100]
Taricha torosa Ambient sunlight [179]
Reduced larval survival Ambystoma laterale Ambient sunlight plus artificial lamps [181]
Ambystoma macrodactylum Artificial lamps [78, 182]
Ambystoma maculatum Ambient sunlight plus artificial lamps [181]
Anaxyrus americanus Ambient sunlight plus artificial lamps [181]
  Artificial lamps [93]
Bufo bufo Ambient sunlight [180, 183]
Crinia signifera Ambient sunlight [114]
Hyla versicolor Ambient sunlight plus artificial lamps [181]
  Artificial lamps [93]
Hypsiboas pulchellus Artificial lamps [69]
Ichthyosaura alpestris Ambient sunlight [81]
  Artificial lamps [81]
Limnodynastes peronii Artificial lamps [62, 65]
Lithobates clamitans Ambient sunlight [184]
  Ambient sunlight plus artificial lamps [181]
  Artificial lamps [93]
Lithobates pipiens Ambient sunlight [184,185,186]
  Artificial lamps [58]
Lithobates septentrionalis Ambient sunlight [184]
Lithobates sylvaticus Ambient sunlight [188]
  Ambient sunlight plus artificial lamps [181]
  Artificial lamps [93]
Litoria verreauxii alpina Ambient sunlight [114]
Pelophylax perezi Ambient sunlight [180]
Pseudacris regilla Ambient sunlight plus artificial lamps [96]
  Artificial lamps [102]
Rana aurora Ambient sunlight plus artificial lamps [96]
Rana cascadae Ambient sunlight [42, 155]
  Artificial lamps [102, 155]
Reduced metamorph survival Anaxyrus americanus Artificial lamps [93]
Lithobates clamitans Artificial lamps [93]
Lithobates sylvaticus Artificial lamps [93]
Pseudacris regilla Artificial lamps [102]
Rana cascadae Artificial lamps [102]
Growth and development
Reduced size at hatching Rana temporaria Ambient sunlight [136]
Reduced larval size Ambystoma macrodactylum Artificial lamps [78, 182]
  Limnodynastes peronii Artificial lamps [62, 147, 168]
  Lithobates blairi Ambient sunlight [189]
Reduced size at metamorphosis Lithobates sylvaticus Artificial lamps [93]
Rana temporaria Artificial lamps [63, 190]
Reduced embryonic development rate Ambystoma macrodactylum Ambient sunlight [191]
Reduced larval development rate Lithobates blairi Ambient sunlight [189]
Lithobates pipiens Artificial lamps [58]
Reduced development rate to stage 25 [192] Limnodynastes peronii Artificial lamps [65]
Rana temporaria Artificial lamps [193]
Longer time to hatching Limnodynastes peronii Artificial lamps [65, 168]
Longer time to metamorphosis Lithobates pipiens Artificial lamps [58]
Rana temporaria Artificial lamps [63, 190]
Malformations and abnormalities
Spinal curvature Ambystoma macrodactylum Ambient sunlight [191]
Anaxyrus boreas Artificial lamps [194, 195]
Hypsiboas pulchellus Artificial lamps [69]
Limnodynastes peronii Artificial lamps [65]
Lithobates clamitans Artificial lamps [93]
Lithobates pipiens Artificial lamps [58]
Lithobates sylvaticus Ambient sunlight [188]
  Artificial lamps [93]
Pleurodema bufoninum Ambient sunlight [92]
  Artificial lamps [92]
Pseudacris regilla Artificial lamps [102]
Rana temporaria Artificial lamps [63]
Rhinella arenarum Artificial lamps [187]
Xenopus laevis Artificial lamps [196]
Edema Ambystoma macrodactylum Ambient sunlight [191]
Lithobates pipiens Artificial lamps [58]
Lithobates sylvaticus Ambient sunlight [188]
Pleurodema bufoninum Ambient sunlight [92]
  Artificial lamps [92]
Pseudacris regilla Artificial lamps [102]
Rana cascadae Artificial lamps [102]
Rhinella arenarum Artificial lamps [187]
Underdeveloped gills Rhinella arenarum Artificial lamps [187]
Eye abnormalities Anaxyrus boreas Artificial lamps [194, 195]
Lithobates pipiens Ambient sunlight [185]
Rana aurora Ambient sunlight plus artificial lamps [198]
Rana cascadae Artificial lamps [199]
Pseudacris regilla Ambient sunlight plus artificial lamps [198]
Xenopus laevis Artificial lamps [196]
Limb and digit malformations Hypsiboas pulchellus Artificial lamps [69]
Lithobates pipiens Ambient sunlight [185, 186]
  Artificial lamps [58, 200]
Rana temporaria Artificial lamps [63]
Jaw malformations Hypsiboas pulchellus Artificial lamps [69]
Locomotion performance
Reduced larval escape swimming speed Limnodynastes peronii Artificial lamps [65, 168]
Reduced metamorph jumping performance Hypsiboas pulchellus Artificial lamps [69]
Metabolism
Reduced whole-animal metabolic rate in larvae Bufo bufo Artificial lamps [197]
Limnodynastes peronii Artificial lamps [37]
Increased whole-animal metabolic rate in larvae Bufo bufo Artificial lamps [197]
Increased tissue metabolic rate in larvae Limnodynastes peronii Artificial lamps [37]
Behaviour
Erratic swimming behaviour Ichthyosaura alpestris Ambient sunlight [81]
  Artificial lamps [81]
Lithobates sylvaticus Artificial lamps [93]
Swimming in circles Lithobates pipiens Artificial lamps [58]
Lithobates sylvaticus Artificial lamps [93]
Reduced activity levels Hyla versicolor Artificial lamps [90]
Limnodynastes peronii Artificial lamps [37]
Rana aurora Artificial lamps [88]
Rana cascadae Artificial lamps [155]
Xenopus laevis Artificial lamps [90]
Reduced predator avoidance Anaxyrus boreas Artificial lamps [64]
Changed microhabitat use Ambystoma barbouri Ambient sunlight [80]
Ambystoma texanum Ambient sunlight [80]
Oophaga pumilio Ambient sunlight [201]
  Ambient sunlight plus artificial lamps [201]